本網站其他部分說明萊雅一般而言如何評估所有成分和產品的安全性,以及如何持續監控並檢驗任何有關其產品或成分的可能安全疑慮。
然而,我們也瞭解消費者的疑慮往往是針對單一種類產品或特定成分或其他議題;因此我們將在以下段落逐一說明本集團對常見美妝品安全問題的立場。

The other sections of this website describe how L’Oréal in general evaluates the safety of all of its ingredients and products, and how it constantly monitors and examines any possible safety concern about any of its products or ingredients.
However we also understand that our consumers’ concerns are often specific to a single type of product or particular ingredient or other issue. This is why we’ve decided to offer all of the Group’s specific positions on the most commonly-mentioned questions relating to the safety of cosmetics, in the binder below.

什麼是甲醛溶液
甲醛溶液是一種液態的有機化合物,其氣態稱為甲醛。這種物質在美妝產品中主要用為消毒劑、生物組織固定劑及防腐劑,可防止微生物(細菌、酵母菌及黴菌)在美妝產品中孳生;甲醛溶液也具有硬化特性。
甲醛在美妝產品中的使用受到嚴格規範。其化合物在有限的情況下可用於指甲硬化劑及以低濃度作為防腐劑,但禁止用於氣霧或噴霧型態的美妝產品中。目前直髮產品中含有高濃度的甲醛。這種不符現行國際規範的產品會對消費者和美髮師構成安全威脅,因此不應販售。各類國際管理當局均已制定管理程序對此類產品加以規範。

甲醛是否有安全風險?
目前各大國際科學組織均認為甲醛經吸入接觸後有引發鼻咽癌之虞,所以對這種物質在美妝品中的使用設有十分嚴格的限制。在正常使用條件下,美妝產品中的甲醛並不會對人體健康造成任何風險。

會釋出甲醛的防腐劑是否有安全風險?
某些防腐劑會釋出極少量甲醛以確保美妝產品不受微生物汙染。各種國際科學專家委員會對防腐劑在美妝產品中的使用條件制定規範,並嚴格審查其安全性;因此會釋出甲醛的防腐劑,唯有在不會對消費者健康造成任何風險的前提下才可能獲准使用。

萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞?
為保護消費者和美妝專業人士,我們在產品品質與安全上絕不妥協。我們很久以前就已決定,即使法規允許,在我們的產品中也不採用甲醛成分;而雖然我們在部分產品中使用的三種防腐劑會釋出極少量甲醛,但其濃度遠低於法規限制標準。我們所用的防腐劑及其濃度都經過嚴格篩選設定,確保有效防止微生物汙染產品,同時為消費者保障最佳安全度與品質。

    • What is formol?
      Formol is a liquid organic compound known as formaldehyde in the gaseous state. It is mainly used as a disinfectant, fixative for biological tissues and in cosmetic products, in which it prevents the growth of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and fungi). Formol is also endowed with hardening properties.
      The use of formaldehyde in cosmetic products is highly regulated. The compound is authorized, in a restricted manner, in nail hardeners and as a preservative at low concentrations. Use is prohibited in cosmetic products in aerosol or spray form. Formaldehyde has recently been incorporated, at high concentrations, in hair relaxing products. The products do not comply with the current international regulations, are associated with a risk for consumers and hairdressers and therefore should not be marketed. The products have been targeted by regulatory procedures initiated by the various international regulatory authorities.

      Is formaldehyde associated with risks?
      Currently, formaldehyde is considered by various international scientific organizations as being associated with the emergence of nasopharyngeal cancer after exposure by inhalation. This explains the very strict restrictions on use of the substance in cosmetics. The formaldehyde in cosmetic products is not associated with any risk for human health under normal conditions of use.

      Are preservatives releasing formaldehyde associated with risks?
      Certain preservatives have the characteristic of releasing very small quantities of formaldehyde to ensure the microbiological protection of cosmetic products. The preservatives have undergone very rigorous evaluation of their safety in cosmetic products by various international scientific expert committees, who have defined the conditions for use of the preservatives in cosmetic products. Preservatives releasing formaldehyde have thus received regulatory authorizations enabling their use without any risk for consumer health.

      Why are L’Oréal products safe?
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products for consumers and beauty-care professionals. We decided long ago not to use formaldehyde as an ingredient in our products even though the regulations authorize its use. We use, however, three ingredients releasing small quantities of formaldehyde as preservatives in some of our products at concentrations that are always less than the regulatory limits. The preservatives and their concentrations have been rigorously selected to ensure the correct level of microbiological protection of the products while ensuring the safety and quality of our products for consumers.

什麼是防腐劑為什麼要使用防腐劑
防腐劑是指用於防範美妝產品產生物理化學降解或微生物(細菌、酵母菌和黴菌)在美妝產品中孳生的天然或合成物質。多數防腐劑為屬於各種化學族群的合成物質(含鹵素化合物、乙醛、對羥基苯甲酸酯、甘醇醚、有機酸)。防腐劑也廣泛用於預防微生物對食品和藥物的汙染。就某些種類的美妝產品(乳液、乳霜等)而言,由於製造(水、空氣、包裝材料)過程或消費者的重複使用可能產生微生物汙染,因此絕對必須使用防腐劑加以保護。美妝產品不像易腐食品會放在冰箱,而是長時間存放於室溫下(開封後6至24個月),因此未經妥善保護的美妝產品可能遭到汙染,進而對消費者健康造成風險。

有哪些潛在風險?
儘管防腐劑是保護美妝產品的要角,但其優點經常遭人質疑。有人主張防腐劑具有致敏性,並可能引發某些形式的癌症,且為干擾內分泌的因素。防腐劑用於美妝產品的數量和濃度受到各類國際規範的嚴密管控。國際健康管理當局會定期委任科學專家檢視這些防腐劑的安全資料,將最新的研究發現納入考量,並據以調整用於美妝產品的防腐劑濃度,以免對消費者健康產生潛在影響。

為什麼萊雅美妝產品的保護機制安全無虞
在不得不使用防腐劑預防微生物汙染的情況下,我們會針對美妝產品種類選擇數量極為有限的專用防腐劑。防腐劑及其濃度都依據研究結果,在恪守國際規範的前提下嚴格挑選,確保產品獲得適當的微生物防範,同時確保對消費者的絕對安全性。我們在配方微生物防範方面也制定了前瞻性創新策略,包括:1) 合成的新防腐劑具有絕對的安全性,以及2)開發不易受微生物汙染的特定包裝系統和新劑型。

    • What are preservatives? What are they used for?
      Preservatives are substances of natural or synthetic origin whose principal role is to prevent physicochemical degradation and growth of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and fungi) in cosmetic products. Most preservatives are synthetic substances belonging to various chemical groups (halogen-containing compounds, aldehydes, parabens, glycol ethers, organic acids). Preservatives are also very widely used to prevent microorganism contamination of foodstuffs and medicines. Preservatives are absolutely indispensable for ensuring the protection of certain categories of cosmetic products (lotions, creams, etc.) since microorganism contamination may occur during manufacture (water, air, packaging materials) or repeated use by the consumer. Cosmetic products have a (6 to 24 months after first opening) and, unlike perishable foodstuffs, are stored at room temperature. A cosmetic product that is poorly protected and contaminated may induce health risks for the consumer.

      What are the potential risks?
      Despite the essential role of preservatives in the protection of cosmetic products, their benefit is regularly contested. Preservatives are accused of inducing allergies and playing a role in the emergence of certain forms of cancer, and are singled out as endocrine disruptors.

      The number and concentration of preservatives used in cosmetic products are very limited and strictly controlled by numerous international regulations. The safety data on those preservatives are very regularly reviewed by the scientific experts of the international health authorities in order to take the most recent studies into account. The concentrations used in cosmetic products may then be adjusted in order to prevent potential impacts on consumer health.

      Why is the protection of L’Oréal cosmetic products safe?
      We use a very limited number of preservatives selected for certain specific categories of cosmetic products when protection against microorganisms cannot be ensured by any other means. The preservatives and their concentrations are rigorously selected to ensure the correct level of microbiological protection of the product under study, in strict compliance with the international regulations, while ensuring perfect safety for the consumer.

      We have also developed an in the field of the microbiological protection of formulae consisting of: 1) synthesizing new preservatives endowed with an irreproachable safety profile and 2) developing specific packaging systems and new formulations that are not vulnerable to microbiological contamination.

苯氧乙醇是什麼?

苯氧乙醇是普遍用於各種藥物、美妝及家用產品(清潔劑、消毒劑、塗料等)的防腐劑,亦可作為用於防止微生物汙染(細菌、酵母菌及真菌)的食品添加劑。

為什麼必須用於某些美妝產品?

苯氧乙醇能夠抑制多種細菌和酵母菌,可與其他種類防腐劑搭配使用,且適用於各類美妝產品,因此是十分實用的化妝品抗菌成分。對於有害皮膚的「綠膿桿菌」尤為有效。

問題在哪裡?

自法國國家藥物暨健康產品安全局於2012年頒發醫療產品安全建議針對三歲以下孩童用美妝產品降低歐洲規定苯氧乙醇最高濃度,並禁止苯氧乙醇添加於嬰兒用產品以來,對於此一物質在美妝產品中的使用就爭議不斷。此事由歐盟執行執委會交付歐洲消費者安全科學委員會,檢視美妝產品中苯氧乙醇的安全性。

為什麼萊雅含苯氧乙醇的產品具有安全性?

歐洲消費者安全科學委員會於2016年重新審查苯氧乙醇的所有毒物學及安全性資料,並再次確認此項防腐劑在歐洲規範所設定的限制內可添加於包括孩童及嬰兒用美妝產品,全無安全疑慮,歐盟的此項意見駁斥了法國國家藥物暨健康產品安全局在2012年所持的立場。我們對於產品的品質與安全決不妥協,包括杜絕可能引起嚴重皮膚問題的微生物汙染。苯氧乙醇用於我們的美妝產品已有數十年之久,但僅限於必須添加確保有效微生物防護之處。所用濃度亦經嚴格選擇,確保所分析的產品具有適當的微生物防護程度,並且嚴格遵循國際規範並保證對於消費者完全無害。我們更採行前瞻性的創新策略,致力研發具有更佳微生物汙染防護能力的特定包裝和新製劑型態,從而減少防腐劑且特別是苯氧乙醇的使用。

    • What is it?

      Phenoxyethanol is a preservative that is very widely used in numerous pharmaceutical, cosmetic and household products (detergents, disinfectants, textiles, paints, etc.). It is also used as an additive in food products to protect against microbiological contamination (bacteria, yeasts and fungi).

      Why is it essential in certain cosmetic products?

      Phenoxyethanol is very useful for ensuring microbiological protection of cosmetics, because it is effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria and yeasts, works in synergy with other types of preservative, and is effective for varied categories of cosmetic product. In particular, it is extremely effective against the "Pseudomonas aeruginosa" bacterium, which is very harmful to the skin.

      What is the issue?

      The use of phenoxyethanol in cosmetic products has been controversial since the recommendations in 2012, by the French ANSM agency for medical product safety, that European regulatory maximum concentrations be reduced for cosmetic products intended for children under 3 years old, and to prohibit its use in cosmetic products for babies' bottoms. This position has been brought before the European Commission, in order for the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety.to review the safety of phenoxyethanol in cosmetic products.

      Why are L’Oréal products with phenoxyethanol safe?

      In 2016 the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety re-examined all toxicological and safety data available on phenoxyethanol. The expert Committee reconfirmed that this preservative could be used in complete safety within the limits already set by European regulations, in all cosmetic products, including those for children and babies. This European opinion thus refutes the position expressed in 2012 by the ANSM in France. We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products, including protecting against microbial contamination that may be responsible for serious skin conditions. Phenoxyethanol has been present in our cosmetic products for several decades, only where it is essential to ensure effective microbiological protection. Concentrations are rigorously selected to ensure the correct level of microbiological protection for the product analysed, in strict compliance with international regulations and guaranteeing it is perfectly harmless for all of our consumers. We have also implemented a pro-active innovation strategy that aims to develop, where possible, specific packaging and new formulations that are much less vulnerable to microbial contamination, thereby limiting the use of preservatives in general and phenoxyethanol in particular.

甲基異噻唑啉酮是什麼?

甲基異噻唑啉酮(MI)是可用於多種美妝及家用產品(去汙劑、清潔產品、塗料等)預防微生物汙染的防腐劑,早先是結合甲基異噻唑啉酮使用。自2000年代早期以來,MI開始更普遍地單獨使添加於各類產品,通常用於取代對羥基苯甲酸酯,滿足消費者對於不含苯甲酸酯類防腐劑彩妝品日益增加的需求。

為什麼必須用於某些美妝產品?

MI能夠有效抑制多種細菌,可與其他種類防腐劑家族搭配使用,且適用於各類美妝產品,因此是十分實用的化妝品抗菌成分。

問題在哪裡?

美妝品及非美妝產品中MI(甚至是MCIT/MI混合)的使用增加疑似是造成過敏反應大幅增加的原因。在美妝品方面,目前只有一些用後免沖洗式的產品確認會因MI激發過敏反應。歐洲美妝品產業公會Cosmetics Europe 於2013年要求會員主動在這些產品中停用此一防腐劑。

為什麼萊雅含MIT的產品具有安全性?

歐洲消費者安全科學委員會專家近年來重新審查MI安全性資料,並於2015年底確認此項防腐劑可安全使用於沖洗式產品,但建議降低使用濃度。我們對於產品的品質與安全決不妥協,包括杜絕可能引起嚴重皮膚問題的微生物汙染。我們已經不再於非沖洗式美妝產品中使用MI作為防腐劑,並且也從未將MI用於「低致敏」或孩童嬰兒用產品。

我們仍在必須使用防腐劑確保微生物防護的沖洗式美妝產品中使用MI,但其使用濃度係經審慎考量,確保產品具有適當的微生物防護程度,並且嚴格遵循國際規範,同時確保消費者的絕對安全。我們更採行前瞻性的創新策略,致力研發具有更佳微生物汙染防護能力的特定包裝和新製劑型態,從而減少防腐劑且特別是MI的使用。

    • What is it?

      Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative used in numerous cosmetic and household products (detergents, cleaning products, paints, etc.) to prevent microbiological contamination. This preservative was formerly used in combination with methyl-chloro-isothiazolinone. Since the early 2000s MI on its own is much more commonly used in all of these products. The preservative is often used instead of parabens, meeting the growing demand from consumers for paraben-free cosmetics.

      Why is it essential in certain cosmetic products?

      MI is very useful for ensuring microbiological protection of cosmetics because it is effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, works in synergy with other families of preservatives, and is effective for varied categories of cosmetic products.

      What is the issue?

      Increased use of MI (and even more, of the MCIT/MI mix) in cosmetic and non-cosmetic products is suspected to have caused a significant increase in the number of allergic reactions. For cosmetics, the role played by MI in provoking allergic reactions has only been confirmed for certain products that are not rinsed off after use. In 2013, Cosmetics Europe, the European association of cosmetics industries asked its members to voluntarily stop using the preservative for these products.

      Why are L’Oréal products with MIT safe?

      Experts from the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety have recently re-examined the safety data available for MI and confirmed at the end of 2015 that this preservative could be used safely by consumers in rinse-off products, with a recommendation for a reduction in usage concentrations. We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products, including protecting against microbiological contamination that may be responsible for serious skin conditions. We no longer use MI as a preservative in any cosmetic products that are not rinse-off. We have never used MI in products labelled "hypo-allergenic" or intended for children and babies.
      We still use MI in rinse-off cosmetic products where the preservative is essential to ensure effective microbiological protection. Concentrations of the preservative are then rigorously selected to ensure the correct level of microbiological protection for the product in question, in strict compliance with international regulations while ensuring perfect safety for the consumer. We have also implemented a pro-active innovation strategy that aims to develop, where possible, specific packaging and new formulations that are much less vulnerable to microbiological contamination, thereby limiting the use of preservatives in general and MI in particular.

什麼是對羥基苯甲酸酯
對羥基苯甲酸酯是廣泛使用的一類防腐劑,可保護食品、藥物及美妝產品不受微生物(細菌和黴菌)汙染。用於美妝產品中的對羥基苯甲酸酯屬於合成物質,但某些食物如紅色水果、香草、胡蘿蔔和洋蔥,以及植物製食品、部分乳酪、蜜蜂製品(蜂蠟、蜂王乳)和人體中也自然含有這種物質。

為什麼某些美妝產品必須使用對羥基苯甲酸酯
對羥基苯甲酸酯只需低濃度就能有效對抗細菌和黴菌,具有熱穩定性,且可與其他防腐劑族群協同作用,因此能對多種美妝產品(化妝水、乳液、乳霜)提供有效保護。在此族群中,乙基和甲基對羥基苯甲酸酯(短鏈)的使用最廣,且兩者常結合使用,而丁基和丙基對羥基苯甲酸酯(長鏈)較少使用。

有哪些潛在風險
對羥基苯甲酸酯在美妝產品中的使用多年來爭議不斷。由於體外實驗顯示對羥基苯甲酸酯能結合雌激素受體,因此這類防腐劑被懷疑對人類生殖能力和如乳癌等雌激素相關癌症具有潛在影響;但對羥基苯甲酸酯對雌激素受體的親和性只有人體中所含雌激素(雌二醇-17ß)的百萬分之一以下,且至今並無正式證據顯示對人體健康會產生影響。

含有對羥基苯甲酸酯的萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
各大國際健康管理當局的科學專家,日前針對用於美妝產品的四種對羥基苯甲酸酯(乙基、甲基、丙基及丁基對羥基苯甲酸酯)進行可得毒物學資料全面檢視,而後確認只要對羥基苯甲酸酯的使用濃度合宜,消費者就能安心使用。
我們在產品品質與安全上絕不妥協,而防止微生物汙染也是確保產品品質與安全的重要環節。我們僅在必須用於防止微生物汙染的情況下,在特定類型的美妝產品中審慎使用對羥基苯甲酸酯,且已安全使用數十年之久。我們產品中主要使用的是安全性高的乙基和甲基對羥基苯甲酸酯,並且對羥基苯甲酸酯的濃度依據研究結果在恪守國際規範的前提下經過嚴格定義,確保產品獲得適當的微生物防範,同時確保對消費者的絕對安全性;我們也制定了一套積極的 創新策略,旨在開發較不易受到微生物汙染的特定包裝系統和新劑型,藉此減少包括對羥基苯甲酸酯在內等各種防腐劑的使用。

    • What are parabens?
      Parabens are a series of that are very widely used to ensure the protection of foodstuffs, medicines and cosmetic products from microbiological contamination (bacteria and fungi). The parabens used in cosmetic products are of synthetic origin but they also exist naturally in certain foods such as red fruit, vanilla, carrot and onion, and in foodstuffs prepared from plants, some cheeses, products produced by bees (propolis, royal jelly) and in the human body.

      Why are parabens indispensable in certain cosmetic products?
      Parabens are very useful for ensuring the protection of numerous categories of cosmetic products (lotions, emulsions, creams) since they are very effective at low concentrations against bacteria and fungi, are heat-stable and act synergistically with other preservative groups.

      In this group, ethyl and methyl parabens (short chains) are the most widely used, frequently in combination, while butyl and propyl parabens (long chains) are less used.

      What are the potential risks?
      The use of parabens in cosmetic products has been controversial for several years. Due to the ability of parabens to bind to estrogen receptors in vitro, the preservatives were suspected of a potential effect on reproduction in humans and on estrogen-dependent cancers such as breast cancer. The affinity of parabens for the estrogen receptor is, however, approximately 1 million times weaker than that of the estrogen (estradiol-17ß) present in the human body and no impact on human health has been formally demonstrated to date.

      Why are L’Oréal products containing parabens safe?
      The scientific experts of the various international health authorities very recently reviewed all the toxicological data available on the 4 parabens (ethyl, methyl, propyl and butyl parabens) used in cosmetic products and confirmed that they could be used in all safety by consumers, while adjusting the concentrations for use of each of the parabens.
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products. Microbiological protection is one of the components of product quality and safety. Parabens have been used for several decades in certain categories of our cosmetic products and only when indispensable to ensure effective microbiological protection. The products then mainly contain ethyl and methyl parabens, which have a particularly positive safety profile. The concentrations of those parabens are rigorously defined in order to procure the correct level of microbiological protection for the product under study, in strict compliance with the international regulations, while ensuring perfect safety for the consumer. We have also developed an offensive designed to develop specific packaging systems and new formulations that are markedly less vulnerable to microbiological contamination, thus enabling limitation of the use of preservatives, including parabens.

什麼是矽氧烷
矽氧烷是廣泛用於各種產業(家用清潔產品、醫療物品、美妝產品等)的低分子量化合物。此類族群包含多種物質,其中包括揮發性環狀矽氧烷,如環四矽氧烷(D4)、環五矽氧烷(D5)和環六矽氧烷(D6)。

這些原料具有獨特的物理化學性質(無味無色),可達成各種美妝效能(去除油膩感並創造絲滑觸感、使產品易於塗抹在皮膚及頭髮上、加快產品乾燥速度);矽氧烷D4、D5及D6也廣泛用於多種美妝產品(護膚、彩妝、護髮)上。

有哪些潛在風險
歐洲管理當局認為矽氧烷D4具有潛在生殖毒性,是可能引起人體健康風險的化學物質。因此國際管理當局(加拿大及歐洲)特別就此物質在美妝產品中於多種情形下是否會造成風險進行評估,結果所有案例都證實不會對消費者造成危險。歐洲消費者安全科學委員會目前正在檢視矽氧烷D4的檔案資料。
國際管理當局認為矽氧烷D5在各種美妝應用中的使用於不會造成消費者風險。美妝產業日前已將矽氧烷D5在美妝產品中的安全評定報告提交歐洲消費者安全科學委員會。
至於矽氧烷D6,由加拿大管理當局執行的風險評定也得出此物質對人體並無任何健康風險的結論。
矽氧烷D4和D5也因就歐洲標準而言可能在水生環境中滯留累積而受到格外注意。據此,部分國際管理當局正在考量限制用後不需沖洗的美妝產品對矽氧烷D4和D5的使用。國際管理當局對矽氧烷D6所進行的評估則並未發現任何特定環境風險。

含有矽氧烷的萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
我們在產品品質與安全上絕不妥協。依據我們的預測政策,我們評估如矽氧烷等特定成分族群所產生各種微弱徵象的強度與相關性。有賴創新動能,我們得以在十多年前停止在所有產品繼續使用矽氧烷D4為原料。
我們特別留心掌握一切有關矽氧烷對人類與環境安全影響的最新科學發現。我們在對含此類物質產品的安全評定中,系統性納入最新知識,以確保消費者能安心使用我們的產品。雖然對消費者健康並無危險,但我們很快就會將在創新動能計畫中,將僅於用後不需沖洗的美妝產品中使用矽氧烷D5列為目標。

    • What are siloxanes?
      Siloxanes are low-molecular weight compounds widely used in numerous industrial sectors (household cleaning products, medical articles, cosmetic products, etc.). This group consists of a number of substances of which volatile cyclic siloxanes such as cyclotetrasiloxane (D4), cyclopentasiloxane (D5) and cyclohexasiloxane (D6).

      These raw materials are endowed with unique physicochemical properties (no odor or color) enabling various cosmetic performances to be achieved (non-oily and silky feel, ease of product application on the skin and hair, rapid product drying). Siloxanes D4, D5 and D6 are also widely used in a large variety of cosmetic products (skin care, makeup, hair care).

      What are the potential risks?
      Siloxane D4 is considered by the European authorities responsible for chemicals as liable to present risks for human health due to its toxic potential with respect to reproduction. The international regulatory authorities (Canada and Europe) therefore assessed the specific risk associated with the substance in cosmetic products on several occasions and in all cases confirmed the absence of risk for consumers. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety is currently reviewing the dossier on siloxane D4.
      The international regulatory authorities consider that siloxane D5 may be used in its various cosmetic applications without risk for consumers. The safety assessment on siloxane D5 in cosmetic products was recently submitted to the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety by the cosmetics industry.
      With regard to siloxane D6, the risk assessment conducted by the Canadian authorities concluded that the substance was not associated with any risk for human health.
      Siloxanes D4 and D5 are also the subject of special attention insofar as they are suspected of accumulating and persisting in the aquatic environment, as defined by the European criteria. On that basis, some international regulatory authorities are considering restricting the use of siloxanes D4 and D5 to cosmetic products that are not rinsed off after use. The evaluations of siloxane D6 conducted by the international authorities did not identify any particular risk for the environment.

      Why are the L’OREAL products containing siloxanes safe?
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products. In the context of our policy of anticipation, we evaluate the intensity and pertinence of numerous weak signals relating to certain groups of ingredients such as siloxanes. In , we were able to discontinue use of siloxane D4 as a raw material in all of our products more than 10 years ago.
      We monitor with particular attention all the new scientific findings relating to the human and environmental safety of siloxanes. Our knowledge is systematically incorporated in the safety assessments of products containing those substances in order to ensure that consumers can use our products in every confidence. Although there is no risk for the health of consumers, we are shortly to incorporate in our innovation dynamic the objective of only using siloxane D5 in cosmetic products that are not rinsed off after use.

什麼是紫外線過濾劑
太陽會放射各種紫外(UV)線,其波長及強度根據季節及緯度有所不同。UVB(短波長)射線能量最強,會引發嚴重程度不一的立即性紅斑(泛紅及曬傷)。反覆接觸UVB射線可能導致各種皮膚癌。UVA(長波長)射線會深入皮膚,且可能加速皮膚老化並引起某些形式的光感性皮膚病。
無機過濾劑(二氧化鈦和氧化鋅)會反射光線,有機過濾劑則會吸收光線。各種UV過濾劑常以不同濃度結合使用,以確保防曬產品提供適當的UVA及UVB保護程度(防曬係數),並為保養產品提供日常光防護。這些產品因此對消費者健康確有實質助益。
萊雅於1935年發明第一款防曬油,且因發現具有絕佳安全性的有機UVA及UVB過濾劑,始終為防曬研究領域的領導者。

UV過濾劑有什麼疑慮
儘管紫外線過濾劑在抵擋陽光並提供每日光防護方面扮演不可或缺的角色,但其優點屢受質疑。常有人指稱某些有機過濾劑會引起 過敏、干擾內分泌且可能對環境產生負面影響;而無機過濾劑則被懷疑能快速穿透生物屏障(黏膜、皮膚等)並擴散於體內,因而引發對健康的負面作用。美妝產品中的紫外線過濾劑數量及濃度受到多種國際規範嚴格管控。許多國家將某些防曬產品中的紫外線過濾劑歸類為美妝成分,但澳大利亞、加拿大和美國卻視之為藥品。國際健康管理當局定期指派科學專家檢視紫外線過濾劑的安全資料,以便將最新研究結果納入考量。部分消費者可能會產生過敏,但這種案例十分罕見。目前所知並無證據顯示用於美妝產品中的紫外線過濾劑可能對人類荷爾蒙系統產生負面影響。

含有UV過濾劑的萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
我們僅在美妝產品中使用極少量的無機和有機紫外線過濾劑,且全都通過國際管理當局科學專家委員會的嚴格審查後取得核准。歐洲消費者安全科學委員會日前公布了一份肯定奈米形態二氧化鈦和氧化鋅適合用於美妝產品的報告。紫外線過濾劑及其濃度都經過嚴格選擇,以確保提供符合國際規範的適切產品效能,同時確實保障消費者安全。我們的防曬產品及日常光防護產品採用獨家專利有機過濾劑

劑(Mexoryl SX及XL),不僅功效卓越且具有絕佳安全性,並未引起任何特定安全爭議。

    • What are ultraviolet filters?
      The sun emits various ultraviolet (UV) rays whose wavelength and intensity vary depending on season and latitude. UVB (short wavelengths) are the most powerful. They induce immediate erythema of variable severity (redness and burning). Repeated exposure to UVB radiation is responsible for various cancers of the skin. UVA (long wavelengths) penetrate deeply into the skin and are responsible for premature skin aging and certain forms of photodermatosis.
      Inorganic filters (titanium dioxide and zinc oxide) reflect light while organic filters absorb it. The various UV filters are frequently combined at variable concentrations to ensure the required level of protection (protection factor) against UVA and UVB of sunscreen product ranges and ensure everyday photo-protection of care products. These products are thus endowed with a real benefit for consumer health.
      L’Oréal invented the first sunscreen oil in 1935 and remains a leader in the field of photo-protection research through the discovery of new organic filters against UVA and UVB endowed with an irreproachable safety profile.

      What are UV filters suspected of?
      Despite the essential role of ultraviolet filters in protection against the sun and everyday photo-protection, their benefit is regularly contested. Certain organic filters are frequently accused of inducing allergies, singled out as endocrine disruptors and suspected of a negative impact on the environment. Inorganic filters are suspected of readily crossing biological barriers (mucous membranes, skin, etc.), being distributed in the body and inducing adverse effects on health. The number and concentration of ultraviolet filters in cosmetic products are very limited and strictly controlled by numerous international regulations. Ultraviolet filters in some protection products are defined as cosmetic ingredients in numerous countries but as medicines in Australia, Canada and the USA. The safety data on ultraviolet filters are very regularly reviewed by the scientific experts of the international health authorities in order to take the most recent studies into account. In certain consumers, cases of allergy may occur. However, those cases are very rare. Current knowledge does not support the involvement of the ultraviolet filters used in cosmetic products in adverse effects for humans related to hormonal system disruption.

      Why are the L’Oréal products containing UV filters safe?
      We use a very limited number of inorganic and organic ultraviolet filters in our cosmetic products and they have all obtained approval from the international regulatory authorities after rigorous study by their scientific expert committees. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety has recently published a favorable opinion relating to the use of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide in nanometric form in cosmetic products. The ultraviolet filters and their concentrations are rigorously selected to ensure the correct level of product performance, in strict compliance with the international regulations, while ensuring perfect safety for the consumer. The performance of our sunscreen and daily photo-protection products is most frequently ensured by our exclusive proprietary organic filters (Mexoryl SX and XL), which are endowed with an irreproachable safety profile and have not been the subject of any particular safety controversy.

什麼是奈米材料?
奈米材料包含取自現代奈米技術的材料、數十年來為各種應用所製造的奈米材料,以及屬於自然來源的奈米微粒。人類所生存的大氣中一向含有奈米微粒,其中絕大部分(90%以上)是因風蝕或火山噴發產生的天然無機奈米微粒。目前國際上對奈米材料並沒有一套統一的定義,也沒有通用的標準化分析方法。歐洲將用於美妝產品中的奈米材料,定義為刻意製造而成的非可溶性或非生物持久性材料,且至少外部尺寸或內部結構大小為1至100奈米(一公釐的百萬分之一)之間。奈米材料在保健、電子、航空、石油天然氣及美妝產業中的應用相當廣泛。

萊雅為什麼在美妝產品中使用奈米材料
我們僅在對消費者有益的前提下使用極少量的奈米材料(包括二氧化鈦、氧化鋅、碳黑和矽)。例如,在防曬產品中加入奈米二氧化鈦以強化防曬能力或預防陽光傷害肌膚,即屬奈米材料的有益功效。奈米二氧化鈦可確保有效過濾紫外線。奈米矽可為染髮霜帶來濃稠質地,避免染髮霜在塗抹時流入眼睛。

有哪些潛在風險
諸多創新應用中大幅增加奈米材料的使用,也連帶引起了在健康與社會方面的疑慮。有鑑於其特定性質(化學與物理),一般認為奈米材料能迅速通過生物屏障(黏膜、皮膚、腦膜、胎盤等)散布於全身,因此對健康產生不利影響。
少數用於美妝產品的奈米材料並非新的微粒成分產品,其在各種美妝產品中使用已行之有年,從未聞曾引起任何人體健康問題。這些材料全都通過極為完整的特定安全評定,顯示奈米成分的安全性質與非奈米成分並無實質差異。科學資料充分顯示奈米材料並不會大幅經皮滲透,因此美妝成分的奈米特性並不會對人體健康造成特定風險。

萊雅使用的奈米材料為什麼安全無虞
我們在產品品質與安全上絕不妥協。至今並無任何證據顯示少數用於美妝產品中的奈米材料與任何人體健康風險有所關聯。歐洲的美妝規範對奈米材料在美妝方面的使用有嚴格要求,因此足以解決社會疑慮的最先進標準。歐洲消費者安全科學委員會以極高標準評估用於美妝品的奈米材料,必須符合嚴格要求才能獲准使用。相關專家對二氧化鈦、氧化鋅和碳黑已正式發表肯定看法。我們某些產品中使用的少數奈米材料都已通過符合歐洲標準的具體安全評估,規範中也要求包裝上的成分清單中必須明確指出奈米成分。我們所有產品均恪遵法規要求。

    • What is a nanomaterial?
      Nanomaterials consist of materials derived from modern nanotechnologies, nanomaterials that have been manufactured for decades for various applications and nanoparticles which may be of natural origin. Man has always lived in an atmosphere containing nanoparticles of which the great majority (over 90%) consists of natural inorganic nanoparticles deriving from wind erosion and volcanic eruptions. There is no single international definition and no harmonized and standardized analytical methods for nanomaterials. The nanomaterials used in cosmetic products are defined, in Europe, as non-soluble or non-biopersistent materials manufactured intentionally and with at least one external dimension or internal structure measuring between 1 and 100 nanometers (1 million times smaller than a millimeter). Nanomaterials have numerous applications in the healthcare, electronics, aeronautics, oil and gas, and cosmetics industries.

      Why does L’Oréal use nanomaterials in cosmetic products?
      We use a very small number of nanomaterials (including titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, carbon black and silica) when they contribute a consumer benefit. The benefit may consist, for example, in enhanced protection from, or prevention of, the harmful effects of sun through the incorporation of nano-titanium dioxide in . Nano-titanium dioxide ensures very effective filtration of ultraviolet radiation. Nano-silica enables hair color creams that are very unctuous to be obtained. The creams do not run into the eyes when they are applied.

      What are the potential risks?
      The very marked growth in the use of nanomaterials for numerous innovative applications has given rise to health and societal concerns. Given their particular properties (chemical and physical), nanomaterials are suspected of readily crossing biological barriers (mucous membranes, skin, meninges, placenta, etc.), being distributed in the body and inducing adverse effects on health.
      The few nanomaterials used in cosmetic products are not new particulate ingredients products. They have been used in various cosmetic products for numerous years without the slightest problem for human health. The materials have all undergone a very complete specific safety assessment showing that the safety profile of nano-ingredients is not substantially different to that of non-nanometric forms. Robust scientific data show the absence of significant percutaneous penetration of nanomaterials. There is thus no particular risk for human health related to the nanometric character of the ingredients.

      Why are the nanomaterials used by L’Oréal safe?
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products. To date, there is no proven link between the few nanomaterials used in cosmetic products and any risk for human health. The European cosmetic regulations are the most advanced with respect to addressing societal concerns relating to the cosmetic use of nanomaterials. The highly rigorous regulations demand that the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety assess and authorize the nanomaterials used in cosmetics. The experts have already formulated a positive opinion for titanium dioxide, zinc oxide and carbon black. The few nanomaterials used in certain of our products have undergone a specific safety assessment in compliance with European standards. The regulations also require that the nano-ingredients are clearly identified in the list of ingredients on the packaging. We scrupulously comply with the regulations for all of our products.

什麼是麩質?萊雅有沒有使用麩質?
麩質是多種物質的混合物,主要由蛋白質構成,存在於某些穀類的種子中,如小麥、大麥、裸麥和燕麥;許多含有這些穀類的食物也都含有麩質。麩質因具有黏著伸縮性而為人所用,特別是在烘焙用途。我們的美妝產品中並不使用麩質成分,

但儘管我們對原料品質有極高的要求,仍可能有微量麩質存在於部分取自小麥、裸麥、大麥和燕麥的原料中。

有哪些潛在風險
對麩質成分中特定蛋白質的無法耐受也稱為麩質過敏症,是人類常見的病症。不耐性表現於小腸壁的明顯損傷,可能影響特定必要營養素的腸吸收,因此導致嚴重的營養不良。攝取來自裸麥、燕麥、小麥或大麥的食品便可能致病。治療方式為終生採取無麩質飲食。

萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
我們決定不在美妝產品中使用麩質成分。某些原料中的微量麩質可能以極低比例存在於部分美妝產品中。就算是患有麩質過敏症的消費者,接觸極少量麩質也不至於造成健康風險;因此即使意外吃下含有微量麩質的唇膏,由於麩質量極微故也不會產生負面作用。

自知具有麩質不耐性的消費者應避免使用含有取自相關榖類成分的美妝產品。在選擇美妝產品前,消費者可確認成分清單中是否不含以下穀類的拉丁文名稱(小麥:Triticum vulgare;大麥:Hordeum distichon;燕麥:Avena sativa;裸麥:Secale cereale)。

    • What is gluten? Does L’Oréal use gluten?
      Gluten is a mixture of substances, mainly consisting of proteins, present in the seeds of certain cereals such as wheat, barley, rye and oats. Gluten is present in numerous foods containing those cereals. It is used for its viscoelastic properties, particularly in baking.

      We do not use gluten as an ingredient in our cosmetic products. Despite our high level of requirements relating to the quality of our raw materials, small traces of gluten may be present in a few of our raw materials derived from wheat, rye, barley and oats.

      What are the potential risks?
      Intolerance of certain protein fractions of gluten, also known as celiac disease, is relatively common in humans. The intolerance is characterized by marked impairment of the walls of the small intestine, which may interfere with the intestinal absorption of certain essential nutriments, thus resulting in serious deficiencies. The disease is induced by intake of foodstuffs derived from rye, oats, wheat or barley. Treatment necessitates life-long compliance with a gluten-free diet.

      Why are L’Oréal products safe?
      We decided not to use gluten as an ingredient in our cosmetic products. Traces of gluten in certain raw materials may be present in some cosmetic products in tiny proportions. The exposure of the human body to those very small quantities of gluten is not associated with a consumer health risk, even in consumers presenting with celiac disease. Ingestion, even accidental, of lipstick containing a few traces of gluten cannot induce adverse effects because the quantities of gluten are so small.

      Consumers who know they have gluten intolerance rightly wish not to use cosmetic products containing ingredients derived from the incriminated cereals. Before choosing a cosmetic product, consumers may very easily verify the absence of the Latin names of the cereals involved in the list of ingredients (wheat: Triticum vulgare; barley: Hordeum distichon; oats: Avena sativa; rye: Secale cereale).

什麼是香精成分
香精是嗅覺組成成分,也是構成香水和淡香水等產品的基礎。香精成分也用於家用芳香劑、香水美妝產品和消費者產品,如家用清潔產品。
人類自古以來就會使用和交易香料。氣味對社會關係與個人幸福感的影響也是眾所周知之事。嗅覺組成物構成了美妝品的氣味,也是產品使用時創造感官愉悅的來源。
香精成分包括許多自然來源物質(玫瑰、茉莉、薰衣草、柳橙、佛手柑等)或合成來源物質。

為什麼在成分清單中只提到「香精」而不是列出物質名稱
嗅覺組成物的創造源自獨特的經驗,調香師對其所賴以聞名的香水配方莫不謹慎保存。為了保護產業知識的機密性,標籤上並不詳細指明香精的組成,但必須列出香精中所含有的過敏原。

有哪些潛在風險
皮膚醫學界已知某些消費者會對香精產生過敏反應。2003年歐盟在美妝規範中規定製造商應在成分清單中指明特定物質的存在,不可概以「香精」籠統稱之。共有26種被視為最具致敏性的物質在含量超過特定門檻時(在沖洗式產品中0.01%,在非沖洗式產品中0.001%)必須在標籤上列明。消費者因此得以獲得較為透明的資訊,而可更合理使用美妝產品。歐洲消費者安全科學委員會日前檢視所有關於美妝產品中香精成分致敏性的科學資料,並建議除了目前規定標示的26種物質外應進一步擴大標示範圍。歐盟委員會正與業界密切合作,盼能參酌專家意見,研擬出更恰當的標示規定。

萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
我們的研究團隊設有專人負責評估香精成分的安全性。我們採用的嗅覺組成物均符合IFRA(國際嗅覺組成物製造商組織)標準,且通過供應商的初步安全評定;此外,組成物必須符合本集團安全評估員所制定的嚴格規格要求。在確定組成物符合所有法規責任與安全要求後,我們還會進行臨床測試以確認含香精組成的產品是否安全。供應商與萊雅的雙重把關,確保我們的產品使用起來絕對安全。

    • What are fragrance ingredients?
      Fragrances are the constituents of olfactory compositions which create the basis of the great perfumes, eau de toilette, etc. Fragrance ingredients are also used in household fragrances, to perfume cosmetic products and in consumer products such as household cleaning products.
      Since ancient times, man has made use of and traded in fragrances. The role of odors in social relations and well-being is well known. Olfactory compositions underlie the odors of cosmetics and contribute to the sensory pleasure related to their use.
      Fragrance ingredients include a very large series of substances of natural origin (rose, jasmine, lavender, orange, bergamot, etc.) or synthetic origin.

      Why indicate 'Fragrance' in the list of ingredients and not the names of the substances?
      The creation of olfactory compositions draws on a unique experience and perfumers jealously guard the recipes of the great perfumes on which their celebrity is based. In order to comply with the confidentiality necessary for the protection of industrial know-how, the composition of the fragrance is not indicated in detail on the labeling, with the exception of the list of allergens contained in the fragrance.

      What are the potential risks?
      Fragrances are known by the dermatological community as being liable to induce in certain consumers. In 2003, the European Union instituted, in the cosmetic regulations, the obligation of indicating, in the list of ingredients, the presence of certain substances rather than the simple statement 'fragrance'. In all, 26 substances considered the most allergenic are to be stated in the product labeling if present above a certain cutoff (0.01% for rinse-off products and 0.001% for non-rinse-off products). The consumer, who is thus better informed, is able to ensure the rational use of the cosmetic product. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety recently reviewed all the scientific data on allergies related to fragrance ingredients in cosmetic products and recommended extending the list beyond the 26 substances that currently have to be stated in the labeling. The European Commission is working in close cooperation with industry to define the optimum manner of incorporating the expert opinion in new labeling provisions.

      Why are L’Oréal products safe?
      In our research teams, certain staff are specifically responsible for assessing the safety of fragrance ingredients. The olfactory compositions that we purchase comply with the standards of the IFRA, the international organization representing the producers of olfactory compositions, and undergo an initial safety assessment by the supplier. In addition, the compositions are required to comply with very strict in-house specifications to which the safety assessor contributes. After having checked that the composition fulfills the regulatory obligations and safety requirements, we conduct clinical tests in order to confirm the safety of the product containing the fragrance composition. The dual assessment by both the supplier and L’Oréal ensures that our products can be used in all safety.

什麼是鋁鹽?具有什麼作用?
鋁是一種化學元素,是地殼中含量最豐的金屬,也是僅次於氧和矽的第三大量元素。各種鋁鹽廣泛用於疫苗輔藥、水處理促凝劑及胃酸抑制藥物中;鋁鹽也存在於食物和水中。部分鋁鹽廣泛用於美妝產品中,特別是止汗劑產品。鋁鹽能有效抑制流汗,且不影響皮膚呼吸。含有鋁鹽成分的明礬石是人類長久以來使用的止汗物質,非可溶性的鋁也會用在唇膏和牙膏的色料中。

在美妝產品中添加鋁鹽是否有安全風險
含鋁鹽止汗劑產品的安全性是一個廣受爭議的話題。過去有人主張鋁鹽是引起乳癌和阿茲海默症的因素之一。過去十年來,許多國際專家團體(世界健康組織、美國食品藥物管理局、美國癌症協會、法國健康產品安全局(Afssaps)等)已就其潛在風險進行評估。所有專家團體的共同結論是現行知識並無任何證據顯示用於美妝產品中的鋁鹽可能引發乳癌或阿茲海默症,這些結論正好呼應了鋁鹽不易滲入皮膚的特性。
2011年,Afssaps將一份有關止汗劑產品鋁鹽使用濃度建議上限的報告轉呈歐盟委員會。歐洲消費者安全科學委員會目前正在準備檢視所有科學資料,旨在釐清鋁用於美妝產品中的條件;我們也在歐洲專業協會(歐洲化妝品協會)的協助下提供我們所掌握的資料,積極參與相關程序。

含有鋁鹽的萊雅止汗劑產品為什麼安全無虞
我們在產品品質與安全上絕不妥協。至今並無確證顯示在止汗劑產品中使用鋁鹽與任何人體健康風險有關。許多國際科學專家團體也一再確認這個事實。我們多年來在止汗劑產品中對鋁鹽的使用均嚴格遵守最高安全標準與現行國際規範。我們透過已上市美妝產品安全性監控計畫所收集到的資料,也證實產品安全無虞。

    • What are aluminum salts? What are they used for?
      Aluminum is a chemical element, the most abundant metal in the earth's crust and the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon. The various aluminum salts are very widely used as adjuvants in vaccines, as coagulants in water processing, and in gastric antacid medications. Aluminum salts are also present in food and water. Some aluminum salts are very widely used in cosmetic products, in particular antiperspirant products. Aluminum salts very effectively reduce sweating and do not prevent the skin from breathing. Alum stone, which contains an aluminum salt, has long been recognized to have antiperspirant properties. Non-soluble forms of aluminum are also used in the colored pigments of lipsticks and toothpastes.

      Is there a risk associated with including aluminum salts in cosmetic products?
      The safety of antiperspirant products containing aluminum salts is a subject of controversy. The salts have been suspected of playing a role in the emergence of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The potential risks have been evaluated by numerous international expert groups over the last 10 years (World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration, American Cancer Society, French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps)). All the expert groups confirmed that current knowledge does not provide any grounds for the involvement of aluminum salts used in cosmetic products in the emergence of breast cancer or Alzheimer's disease. These conclusions are perfectly consistent with the very limited ability of aluminum salts to penetrate the skin.
      In 2011, Afssaps forwarded a report to the European Commission recommending limitation of the concentrations of aluminum salts used in antiperspirant products. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety is preparing to review all the scientific data with a view to indicating the conditions under which aluminum may be used in cosmetic products. We are actively contributing to the process under the auspices of our European professional association (Cosmetics Europe) by making all our pertinent data available.

      Why are L’Oréal antiperspirant products containing aluminum salts safe?
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products. To date, there is no proven link between the use of aluminum salts in antiperspirant products and any risk for human health. This has been confirmed many times by international scientific expert groups. Aluminum salts have been used in our antiperspirant products for many years in strict compliance with the highest safety standards and the current international regulations. The safety of the products has also been confirmed by the data collected in the context of our cosmetic safety monitoring program for marketed products.

什麼是氨
氨是一種無色氣體,其水溶液即是氨水。氨水的特性與氣態氨相同,且同樣具有異味。
氨水的用途十分廣泛,包括耕地氮肥及家用清潔劑等。氨水因屬鹼性且具有還原性質,故也用於某些髮品(燙髮、染髮、直髮劑)。
在染髮、氧化及脫色產品中,氨水的功能不僅在於促使染劑滲入髮絲,也是創造過氧化氫作用環境的必要元素(過氧化氫僅能在鹼性媒介中作用)。在髮絲燙直及拉直產品中氨水會改變頭髮結構,使頭髮成為所需的筆直狀態。

是否有任何風險
市售濃縮氨水溶液相當危險,可能引起灼傷,所以拿取時必須穿戴適當個人防護措施(手套、臉部及眼部保護)。高劑量的氨可能會冒煙,造成不適或甚至皮膚和呼吸道發炎。
有鑑於氨水的這些危險性質,各國立法者均對其在於美妝產品中的使用設有詳細規範。在歐洲,用於美妝產品的核准濃度上限為6%,且2%以上便必須標示。在這些條件下,氨水在美妝產品中的使用並不會對消費者造成任何安全威脅。

含有氨水的萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
為保護消費者和美妝專業人士,我們在產品品質與安全上絕不妥協。我們的所有原料和產品在上市前都歷經極為嚴格的安全評定為了確保正常使用條件下的絕對安全性,我們在特定美妝產品的包裝上明確標示使用時應採取的預防措施(配戴手套,若意外接觸眼睛時應採取的措施)。這些特定預防措施部分是出於法規要求,部分是出於我們的安全評估員建議。
我們定期針對美髮專業人士進行研究,藉此確認其是否正確使用我們的染髮產品(遵照使用預防措施、配戴手套、場所空氣流通等)。
遵守預防措施可確保消費者與美髮師能安全使用含氨水的染髮產品。

    • What is ammonia?
      Ammonia is a colorless gas that is referred to as ammonium hydroxide in aqueous solution. Ammonium hydroxide has the characteristic and unpleasant odor of ammonia in gaseous form.
      Ammonium hydroxide has a very wide variety of uses, as a fertilizer supplying nitrogen to agricultural land and as a cleaning agent in household products. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in certain hair products (perms, hair colors, hair straighteners) for its alkaline and reducing properties.
      In hair coloration, oxidation and decoloration products, ammonium hydroxide facilitates colorant penetration into the hair but is also necessary for the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide, which is only active in an alkaline medium. In hair relaxing and straightening products, ammonium hydroxide acts on the structure of the hair to induce the required shape of the hair.

      Are there any risks?
      Commercially available concentrated ammonium hydroxide solutions are very hazardous and may induce burns. The solutions are to be handled using appropriate individual protective measures (gloves, protection of the face and eyes). At high doses, ammonia fumes may give rise to discomfort or even irritation of the skin and respiratory tract.
      These harmful properties of ammonium hydroxide have led legislators to regulate its use in cosmetic products. In Europe, the maximum concentration authorized in a cosmetic product is 6% and labeling is mandatory above 2%. Under those conditions, use of ammonium hydroxide in cosmetic products is not associated with any risk for consumers.

      Why are L’Oréal products containing ammonium hydroxide safe?
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products for consumers and hairdressers. All our raw materials and products undergo very rigorous before marketing. In order to ensure perfect safety under normal conditions of use, we display particular precautions for use on the packaging of certain cosmetic products (glove wearing, measures to be taken in the event of accidental contact with the eyes). These particular precautions may be required by the regulations or by our safety assessors.
      We regularly conduct studies targeting hairdressing professionals in order to verify the correct use of our hair products (compliance with the precautions for use, glove wearing, salon ventilation, etc.).
      Compliance with the precautionary measures ensures perfectly safe use of our products containing ammonium hydroxide for both consumers and hairdressers.

什麼是 PPD具有什麼作用
對苯二胺(PPD)是大部分永久性染髮產品中都會用到的物質。PPD是唯一(除與其化學成分極為相似的對甲苯二胺(PTD)外)能產生最深顏色濃度以長效覆蓋白髮的物質。
進行永久性氧化染色時首先要將如PPD等染髮劑與氧化劑(如:過氧化氫溶液)以適當比例混合以取得所需顏色濃度,接著將調配後的混合物塗抹在頭髮上,停留適當時間。永久染色最能符合美髮師及消費者對成果的期待,因此也是最常使用的染髮方式。

有哪些潛在風險
染髮產品中的PPD常因其潛在致敏性遭到點名。歐洲消費者安全科學委員會專家日前全面檢視相關科學資料後,確認此種物質在染髮產品中,只要於最終塗抹在頭髮上的混合物內不超過2%濃度即無安全疑慮;但高濃度的PPD仍可能於罕見案例中引發部分受試者的過敏反應。

坊間有些紋身彩繪所採用的黑色墨水中含有的PPD濃度高達20%。這種產品長時間接觸皮膚(不像染髮產品會以水沖洗掉)有安全之虞,不符現行規範,因此不應提供予消費者。黑色紋身彩繪可能大幅提高消費者對PPD過敏的風險。事先經歷黑色紋身彩繪而對PPD過敏的消費者,常會在日後使用僅含低濃度PPD的染髮產品時產生皮膚過敏反應。

含有 PPD的萊雅染髮產品為什麼安全無虞
染髮產品及其所含染劑,包括 PPD在內,與我們其他美妝成分和產品一樣,在安全方面都接受規律的研究控制,且處於嚴密的全球法規監控下以確保消費者安全。我們含PPD成分的染髮產品當然也符合最嚴格的美妝產品規範。我們已對染髮產品中的PPD濃度進行最佳調整,使濃度遠低於法規限制的2%門檻,藉此對消費者安全提供進一步的保障。
為了預防皮膚過敏風險,我們建議在染色前48小時實施系統性皮膚過敏測試,嚴格遵守我們所有產品包裝上的指示及使用方法;我們的產品標示中也特別針對事先經歷黑色紋身彩繪者提供警語。在 正常使用條件下,消費者可放心使用我們含PPD成分的染髮產品。

    • What is PPD? What is it used for?
      Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a substance used in the majority of permanent hair color products. PPD is the only product (except for para-toluenediamine (PTD), which is chemically very similar) that procures the darkest tints and covers gray hair in a lasting manner.
      Permanent oxidative coloration is obtained by mixing such as PPD with an oxidizing agent (e.g.: hydrogen peroxide solution) in appropriate proportions to obtain the required tint. The resulting mixture is then applied to the hair for an appropriate time. Permanent coloration is the most frequently used since it meets the performance expectations of hairdressers and consumers.

      What are the potential risks?
      The PPD in hair color products is frequently singled out for its . The experts of the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety recently reviewed all the scientific data and confirmed the safety of the substance in hair color products at a concentration not exceeding 2% in the final mixture applied to the hair. At high concentrations, PPD is, however, liable to induce rare cases of allergy in certain subjects.

      Certain temporary henna tattoos available in the form of black ink contain high concentrations of PPD of up to 20%. The products remain in prolonged contact with the skin (they are not rinsed off unlike hair-color products), do not comply with current regulations and should therefore not be offered to consumers. A black henna tattoo considerably increases the risk of the consumer becoming allergic to PPD. Consumers who have become allergic to PPD following black henna tattooing will frequently trigger a cutaneous allergic reaction when they apply a hair color product containing only low concentrations of PPD.

      Why are the L’Oréal hair-color products containing PPD safe?
      Hair color products and the colorants they contain, including PPD, are among the cosmetic ingredients and products whose safety has been the most regularly studied. They are thus subject to very strict regulatory monitoring worldwide in order to ensure consumer safety. Our hair color products containing PPD are of course compliant with the most restrictive cosmetic regulations. We have managed to optimize the PPD concentrations in our coloration products in order to ensure that the concentrations are substantially below the regulatory limit of 2%. This provides a further assurance of safety for consumers.
      In order to prevent the risk of skin allergy, we recommend systematically conducting a cutaneous allergy test 48 hours before coloration, in rigorous compliance with the instructions on the packaging and method of use of all our products. The labeling of our products also features a special warning for people having already undergone black henna tattooing. Under normal conditions of use, our hair color products containing PPD may be used by consumers in all safety.

什麼是染髮劑?
染髮劑是自然或化學的鹼性成分,可在毛髮上產生著色效果。染髮是一項歷史悠久的程序,古埃及人就已開始使用散沫花染髮。依據消費者所期待的結果,各種染髮產品可由消費者自行使用,或至美髮沙龍由專業人員操作。染髮類型分為標準永久性氧化染、永久性同色深淺染,或者是暫時性或半永久性染。永久性氧化染需要結合各種染髮劑、氧化劑(通常是過氧化氫)及鹼性藥劑(氨水或單乙醇胺)。
萊雅於1909年發明第一款供美髮師使用的氧化染髮產品,且秉持其全球最大毛髮研究中心專注於染髮研究的創新力量,至今仍是此一領域中的世界領導者。

有哪些潛在風險
十幾年前染髮產品和染髮劑曾引起一番論戰。當時有人懷疑這些產品是增加某些癌症發生率的元兇。在此爭論下,各類國際科學委員會紛紛檢視所有既有資料,結論是對消費者並不致於產生如此風險。如同某些食物、藥品和美妝品等許多消費者產品,染髮產品也可能引起過敏反應;然而,這種反應相當罕見,且一般而言並不嚴重(幾乎僅限於接觸性皮膚炎),通常侷限於頭皮,只要停止使用產品後就可完全復原。此類反應產生的主要原因是產品中包含染髮作用不可或缺的特定氧化染劑。

為什麼我們的染髮劑能放心使用
染髮劑一向是人體健康研究最為關注的成分,且受到嚴密管控。近十年來所有染髮劑的種類及其使用濃度都經過歐洲消費者安全科學委員會的審查管理。我們的染髮產品中只選用取得法規核准的染劑,且對苯二胺(PPD)濃度不到歐洲核准濃度上限的二分之一;我們的產品也提供使用預防措施及特定安全標示,告知消費者可能會發生機率不高的過敏反應,且應於使用染髮產品前48小時先行實施皮膚過敏測試,並透過產品標示告知消費者若肌膚事前以含有PPD的黑色散沫花彩繪,則過敏風險會增加。我們透過美妝安全性監控計畫蒐集而得的資料明確顯示非嚴重性皮膚發炎過敏的最大發生率,為約每百萬件售出氧化染髮產品中僅有一例。相較於每百萬名受試者中就有約50至300個案例的嚴重食物過敏而言,此一發生率可謂極低;因此我們的染髮產品在正常使用條件下並不會對消費者構成健康危害。

    • What is a hair colorant?
      Hair colorants are basic ingredients, natural or chemical, which induce coloration of the hair. Hair coloring is an age-old procedure that was already used by the ancient Egyptians, who employed henna. Depending on the result expected by the consumer, various types of hair color products may be used either directly by the consumer or applied by a professional in a hairdressing salon. Coloration may be the classic permanent oxidative coloration, permanent tone on tone coloration, or temporary or semi-permanent coloration. Permanent oxidative coloration combines various hair colorants, an oxidizing agent, generally hydrogen peroxide, and an alkaline agent (ammonium hydroxide or monoethanolamine).
      L’Oréal invented the first oxidative hair color product for hairdressers in 1909 and remains a world leader in the field of innovation with the assistance of the largest hair research center worldwide, for which coloration is one of the priorities.

      What are the potential risks?
      Hair color products and hair dyes were the subject of considerable controversy some 10 years ago. The products were suspected of inducing an increase in the frequency of certain forms of cancer. The controversy led to numerous international scientific committees reviewing all the existing data and concluding that there was no such risk for consumers. Like very many consumer products, such as certain foods, medications and cosmetics, hair color products may induce allergic reactions. However, those reactions are very rare and in general not serious (almost exclusively contact dermatitis) and in general confined to the scalp and totally reversible on discontinuation of product use. The reactions are mainly due to the presence of certain oxidative colorants indispensable for product performance.

      Why can our hair colorants be used in all safety?
      Hair colorants are certainly among the ingredients that have been the most scrupulously studied with regard to human health and are highly regulated. All the hair colorants have been reviewed and their concentrations for use redefined by the European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety over the last decade. Our hair coloration products contain colorants that have obtained regulatory approval and para-phenylenediamine (PPD) concentrations that are at least 2 times less than the maximum concentration authorized in Europe. Our products also have precautions for use and specific safety labeling in order to inform consumers that rare cases of allergic reaction may occur and that a skin allergy test is to be conducted 48 hours before applying the hair color product. The labeling also informs consumers that the risk of allergy increases after having undergone temporary tattooing with black henna containing PPD. Very clearly, the data generated by our show that the maximum frequency of non-serious cutaneous irritation and is about 1 case for every million oxidative hair color product marketed. This finding is to be viewed in the light of severe food allergies: approximately 50 to 300 cases per million subjects. Our hair color products are thus not associated with any risk for consumer health under normal conditions of use.

對嬰幼兒是否會產生風險
某些美妝產品是特別為了嬰幼兒的衛生及護膚需求所設計。這類產品主要是衛生產品(洗髮精和沐浴產品)、乳液和濕巾(臉部及身體特定部位用,特別是更換尿布後),以及護膚產品(臉部及身體用濕潤乳霜)。

除早產兒外,一般嬰兒的皮膚已能提供相當有效的皮膚屏障功能,其滲透性與成人皮膚相去不遠,因此現行國際美妝規範並未就嬰幼兒美妝產品安全性的評定另行制定與成人產品不同的標準;但法國管理當局於2010年曾針對三歲以下嬰兒美妝產品的評估提出相關建議。

國際主管當局多年來都對這類美妝產品特別審慎關注。

萊雅嬰幼兒產品為什麼安全無虞
為保護所有消費者,我們在產品品質與安全上絕不妥協,而嬰幼兒更是我們特別關注的對象。

早在15年前我們就已制定出嬰幼兒產品專屬製劑標準嚴格管控嬰幼兒專用產品的組成、包裝和成分安全評估程序。這套專為三歲以下嬰兒產品制定的標準,遠比目前美妝產品適用的國際法規要求還要嚴格,並且符合特定製劑原則:

- 優先使用廣泛用於嬰幼兒產品的成分,且禁止特定成分的使用。
- 在不得不使用防腐劑預防微生物汙染的情況下,僅從極為有限的防腐劑中嚴選具有高耐受性者。
- 對會長時間於封閉環境中接觸皮膚的臀部使用產品採取更為嚴格的安全預防措施,並視情況限制所用成分濃度的選擇。

實施集團內部規章中的完整安全評定計畫,對成年人及三歲以下嬰兒區分不同階段標準,確保年幼消費者在正常使用條件下的絕對安全性。

    • Are there risks for babies?
      Certain cosmetic products are specifically designed to meet the hygiene and skin care requirements of babies. The products are essentially hygiene products (shampoos and bath products), lotions and wipes (for the face and certain parts of the body, particularly after a diaper change), and skin care products (moisturizing creams for the face and body).

      The skin of a non-premature baby is a very effective cutaneous barrier whose permeability is not markedly different from that of the adult skin. The current international cosmetic regulations therefore do not define specific measures different from those applicable to adults for the assessment of the safety of cosmetic products for babies. However, recommendations relating to the evaluation of cosmetic products for infants aged less than 3 years were formulated by the French authorities in 2010.

      These cosmetic products have been the subject of particular attention and intensified vigilance of the numerous international competent authorities for many years.

      Why are L’Oréal products for babies safe?
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products for all consumers and babies are the subject of particular attention.

      More than 15 years ago, we set up a specific formulation charter for products for babies. The charter very strictly controls the composition, packaging and specific safety evaluation program for ingredients and products intended for babies. The charter, which relates to products for infants aged less than 3 years, is markedly stricter than the current international regulatory requirements applicable to cosmetic products and, in addition, imposes compliance with certain formulation principles:

      - The ingredients widely used for products intended for babies are always to be preferred and certain ingredients are prohibited.
      - Preservatives, when absolutely indispensable to ensure the microbiological protection of products, are selected on the basis of their high tolerability from a very limited list.
      -For products intended for the buttocks, which remain confined and in contact with the skin over a long period, even more stringent safety precautions and restrictions on the choice and concentrations of the ingredients that may be used are imposed.

      Application of the in-house charter, which incorporates a very complete safety assessment program, consisting of several stages in adults and then infants aged less than 3 years, ensures a very high safety level for young consumers under normal conditions of use.

什麼是重金屬
「重金屬」是對人類或環境具有毒性的金屬微量元素。雖然目前並沒有技術或科學定義或任何詳細清單,但如鉛、砷、鎘、汞、鉻、鎳、硒、銻、鋇和鈷等微量元素一般都被視為是重金屬。重金屬存在於地殼中,有些則存在於水、空氣和食物中,是受到特定監控的對象。包括人類在內,部分有機活體的功能有賴特定金屬微量元素(硒、銅、鉻III)的低濃度存在;缺乏特定微量元素也可能導致嚴重的健康問題。

美妝產品為什麼會含有微量重金屬
重金屬並不是美妝產品中使用的成分,現行國際規範也禁止特定金屬微量元素的使用;但在不致於危害人體健康的前提下,實務上可容許美妝產品中存有極少量或微量重金屬。這類微量重金屬通常是來自某些合成或自然原料(染劑、顏料、乳白材料)中的雜質,或是在產品製造、儲存或包裝程序中混入。目前的製作技術無法完全杜絕這些微量重金屬的出現。唇膏中含有的微量鉛常是引起特定關注的議題。

有哪些潛在風險
若身體持續經由飲食及水或呼吸高度汙染空氣等方式吸收重金屬,則重金屬會逐漸在人體中累積,造成嚴重中毒及各種慢性病;因此,過量的鉛攝入可能會導致鉛中毒,鎘則會造成腎臟及肝臟損傷。六價鉻具有高度致癌性,但三價鉻卻是必要的微量元素。

我們如何管控美妝產品中的重金屬含量
我們並不在美妝產品中使用重金屬成分。為了管控特定產品中無法避免的微量重金屬存在,我們採行大規模計畫選擇並分析可能受到影響的原料特性;我們也就製造程序嚴加管控,並要求我們的原料供應商遵守極為嚴格的重金屬管制標準。我們明確符合有關美妝產品中特定重金屬濃度上限的現行國際規範,並以遠較國際規範更為嚴格的限制標準進行管控。

舉例而言,我們某些唇膏中含有的微量鉛由於含量極小,並不致引發任何消費者健康危險。塗抹唇膏所攝入的鉛量還不及每天喝進飲用水中含鉛量的五百到一千分之一

    • What are heavy metals?
      'Heavy metals' are metal trace elements associated with human or environmental toxicity. While there is no technical or scientific definition or any precise list, trace elements such as lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, chrome, nickel, selenium, antimony, barium and cobalt are considered heavy metals. Heavy metals are present in the earth's crust. Some are present in the water, air and food and are the subject of particular monitoring. Some metal trace elements (selenium, copper, chrome III) are essential at low concentrations to the functions of living organisms, including humans. A deficiency in certain trace elements may also induce serious health problems.

      Why are heavy metal traces found in cosmetic products?
      Heavy metals are not used as ingredients in cosmetic products. Certain metal trace elements are prohibited by current international regulations. The presence of very small quantities or traces of heavy metals is nonetheless tolerated in cosmetic products insofar as they are not harmful to human health. The traces often derive from impurities in certain synthetic or natural raw materials (colorants, pigments, opalescent materials) or from the product manufacturing, storage or packaging process. The presence of those traces is considered inevitable at technical level. The presence of lead traces in lipsticks is frequently the subject of particular attention.

      What are the potential risks?
      When heavy metals are absorbed continuously via the diet and water or by breathing highly polluted air, the heavy metals may gradually accumulate in the human body, inducing serious poisoning and various chronic diseases. Thus, excess lead intake gives rise to lead poisoning while cadmium may induce lesions of the kidneys and liver. Form VI of chrome is highly carcinogenic while form III is an essential trace element.

      How are the heavy metal levels in our cosmetic products controlled?
      We do not use heavy metals as ingredients in our cosmetic products. In order to control the presence of inevitable traces of heavy metals in certain products, a large-scale program for the selection and analytical characterization of our susceptible raw materials has been set up. We also control our manufacturing processes. We also ask our raw material suppliers to comply with very strict standards for the principal heavy metals liable to be present. Obviously, we comply with the current international regulations, which define the maximum concentrations of certain heavy metals, which are not to be exceeded in cosmetic products. We always use lower limits than those defined by the regulations.

      By way of an example, the lead traces that may subsist in some of our lipsticks are extremely small and not associated with any consumer health hazard. The lead traces related to application of a lipstick constitute a quantity 500 to 1000 times lower than the quantity deriving from daily intake of drinking water.

美妝產品對母親或孩童是否存有風險
並無科學研究證實美妝產品的使用,會對懷孕婦女或嬰兒產生任何特定風險。

因此現行國際美妝規範並未針對懷孕婦女所用美妝產品的安全性,評估制定與其他消費者不同的標準;但我們的所有產品及其成分 都必須通過嚴格的安全性評定,確保對消費者及其嬰兒的高度安全性。

懷孕婦女在身體上的轉變可能引起皮膚的變化,有時皮膚會變得更易反應、更敏感且容易產生妊娠紋,曬太陽也可能使臉部皮膚產生色塊,形成「孕斑」;因此特別建議婦女懷孕期間要注意肌膚保溼、避免日曬,並視需要使用適當防曬產品。

萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
為所有消費者提供具有最高品質與安全性的產品,是我們絕不妥協的堅持。我們的產品和成分在上市前都通過符合最高國際標準的安全評定程序。美妝產品成分對生殖影響的評估是評定過程中的重要項目,我們也就產品類型對目標消費者的適宜性進行分析。在特殊案例中,若我們的分析顯示特定產品(纖體產品)不宜懷孕婦女使用,則我們會以特殊標示建議懷孕婦女不要使用。

若有特定成分引起疑義,我們會密切注意科學發展及健康管理當局的立場。

舉例而言,懷孕期間服用過量維生素A可能影響胎兒正常發育,因此某些管理機構(法國與德國)對維生素A衍生物(視黃醇、棕櫚酸視黃酯、視黃醇乙酸酯)在懷孕婦女臉部保養產品中使用的安全性抱持質疑態度;但經審閱美妝產業彙整的所有資料後,管理當局確認使用含有一般濃度維生素A衍生物的美妝產品,並不至於對懷孕婦女造成任何危險。
懷孕婦女可放心使用我們販售的所有美妝產品,不會對嬰兒產生特定危險。

我們建議懷孕期間的消費者若對我們產品的使用有任何疑問,均應尋求其內科醫師或婦科醫師的建議。

    • Are there risks for the mother or child?
      No scientific study has demonstrated any particular risk for pregnant women or infants related to the use of cosmetic products.

      The current international cosmetic regulations thus do not define specific measures different from those applicable to all consumers with regard to evaluating the safety of cosmetic products that may be used by pregnant women. The products and their ingredients undergo very rigorous ensuring a high level of safety for consumers and their infants.

      In pregnant women, the transformation of the body may induce changes in the skin, which sometimes becomes more reactive, more sensitive and subject to the emergence of stretch marks. Exposure to the sun may also induce emergence of pigmented areas on the facial skin giving rise to a 'pregnancy mask'. It is therefore particularly recommended to moisturize the skin during pregnancy, avoid exposure to the sun and use an appropriate sunscreen product when necessary.

      Why are L’Oréal products safe?
      We never compromise on the quality and safety of our products for all consumers. Our products and ingredients undergo a safety assessment implemented in compliance with the highest international standards before marketing. Assessment of the potential impact of cosmetic product ingredients on reproduction is an integral component of the assessment. We also analyze the suitability of the product category relative to target consumers. In exceptional cases, we may advise against use of a product by a pregnant woman, using specific labeling, when our analysis requires it (slimming products).

      We monitor scientific developments and the position of the health authorities very closely when particular ingredients give rise to questions.

      By way of an example, excessive dietary intake of vitamin A during pregnancy may be prejudicial to the correct development of the fetus. Certain regulatory agencies (France and Germany) thus rightly questioned the safety in use of vitamin A derivatives (retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl acetate) in facial care products for pregnant women. On the basis of all the data compiled by the cosmetic industry, the regulatory authorities concluded that the vitamin A exposure associated with use of cosmetic products containing vitamin A derivatives at the usual concentrations was not associated with any risk for pregnant women.

      We market cosmetic products that may be use in all safety by pregnant women with no particular hazard for the infant.

      We always advise our consumers with specific questions relating to use of our products during pregnancy to consult their physician or gynecologist for advice.

什麼是內分泌干擾素
依據世界健康組織(WHO)的定義,內分泌干擾素是屬於身體以外自然或人造來源可能干擾內分泌系統機能並隨之對完整生物體或其後代造成負面健康影響的化學物質」。因此內分泌干擾素是指會與荷爾蒙系統相互作用,並藉此機制引發負面健康效應的單一物質或物質混合物;反之,雖會與內分泌系統相互作用,但不會產生負面健康影響的物質則不應屬於內分泌干擾素。內分泌干擾及其對人體健康影響是廣受專注的科學研究議題,自1990年起已有逾四千篇相關科學文獻公布,至今仍是爭議不斷的課題。相關各方(非政府組織、媒體與消費者團體)強烈要求依據預防原則,對僅與內分泌系統作用但未證實會影響人體健康的物質也應立法禁用;但這些爭議物質全不符合WHO的定義。
 

我們的產品是否含有內分泌干擾素
我們的產品並不含WHO所認定的內分泌干擾素,如化學、農業化學、食品及消費者產品產業等各種產業使用的許多物質,都被點名是內分泌干擾素;這些物質因會與荷爾蒙系統相互作用,而常被認為是新陳代謝失調、成長與生殖及荷爾蒙相關癌症的元兇。某些存在於美妝產品中的物質,如鄰苯二甲酸酯、三氯沙及對羥基苯甲酸酯,僅因在細胞培養模型中顯示與各種荷爾蒙受體的互動而屢屢遭控。然而,並無有效科學研究能確認此種荷爾蒙互動對人體健康會有不良影響。

在此情況下如何確保成分安全性
我們已透過預測政策將內分泌干擾素議題納入創新動能計畫。我們產品中使用的物質都通過安全評定,證明其不具有WHO所稱的內分泌干擾素特質,但有鑑於科學界和社會對特定成分的疑慮,即使現行國際規範准許其廣泛使用,我們仍可能會決定在我們的產品中停用、限制其使用或限制其用於特定產品類別;同時,我們已為新成分的挑選制定出不使用實驗室動物的預測性測試平台,能測知候選成分是否會與特定荷爾蒙受體產生我們所欲避免的互動。因此我們的創新動能計畫特別納入基礎預測原則,在安全性評定過程中將所有未經科學實證或僅為社會疑慮的風險一併考量,如此能讓消費者在使用我們的產品時更加放心。

    • What are endocrine disruptors?
      The World Health Organization (WHO) defines endocrine disruptors as 'chemical substances of natural or artificial origin foreign to the body which may interfere with the functions of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse health effects in an intact organism or its progeny'. An endocrine disruptor is thus a substance or mixture of substances that interacts with the hormone system and induces, by that mechanism, adverse effects on health. In contrast, substances that interact with the endocrine system without the interaction inducing any adverse effect on health should not be considered endocrine disruptors. The study of endocrine disruption and its impact on human health has been the subject of very great scientific research interest as over 4000 scientific articles have been published since 1990. The subject remains highly controversial today. The parties involved (NGO, media and consumer associations) insistently demand that the substances which only interact with endocrine systems, with no proven impact on human health, should be the subject of regulatory prohibition pursuant to the principle of precaution. None of the substances targeted fulfill the WHO definition however.

      Are there endocrine disruptors in our products?
      Our products do not contain endocrine disruptors as officially defined by the WHO. Numerous substances used in various industrial sectors, such as the chemical, agrochemical, food and consumer product industries, have been singled out as endocrine disruptors. The substances are frequently accused of inducing disorders of metabolism, growth and reproduction, and hormone-dependent cancers due to their interactions with the hormone systems. Certain substances present in cosmetic products such as phthalates, triclosan and parabens have been the target of repeated attacks on the simple basis of a known interaction with various hormone receptors in cell culture models. However, no valid scientific study has yet confirmed that the hormone interactions give rise to adverse effects on human health.

      How can the safety of ingredients be ensured in this context?
      We have incorporated the issue of endocrine disruptors in the through our policy of anticipation. The substances used in our products have a safety assessment evidencing that they do not have the characteristics of endocrine disruptors as defined by the WHO. On the basis of the intensity and pertinence of the weak scientific and societal signals for certain ingredients, we may nonetheless decide to no longer use them in our products, restrict their use, or restrict them to particular product categories even though the current international regulations authorize their widespread use. In parallel, we have set up, for the selection of our new ingredients, a considerable platform of predictive tests, not using laboratory animals, enabling detection of the ability of ingredients to interact with certain hormone receptors we wish to avoid. Our innovation dynamic thus incorporates the in which any risk that is not yet scientifically proven or is only perceived by society is not neglected in the safety assessment. This ensures that our consumers can use our products with every confidence.

美妝產品使用效期是以兩項互補因素為依據:美妝產品最小耐久性日期,又稱失效日;以及產品使用開封最大使用效期,又稱開封後效期(PAO)。

最小耐久性日期失效日
失效日是指美妝產品在適當儲存條件下,能達成其功效的極限日期。一旦超過此日期就無法保證使用結果。此日期前方會加註「在此日期前…」(Best before ...),且後接完整日期或說明日期標示於何處的文字。此日期的書寫方式為月份在前,年份在後(如:06/2014),或為日、月、年格式(如:01/06/2014)。若最小耐久性長於30個月,則歐洲規範並不要求具體列出日期,因此我們許多美妝產品的標籤上並未指出日期;若美妝產品的最小耐久性少於30個月則日期會顯示在產品標籤上,完全遵照規範要求。

開封後最長使用效期(開封後使用效期 - PAO
開封後效期是指美妝產品經消費者開封後可使用的最長效期。在此期間美妝產品仍能符合一般安全要求,且在正常使用條件下不會變質。PAO的標示方式是以在象徵開瓶乳霜罐的符號上,標以月數表達的使用效期。

http://loreal-dam-front-resources-corp-en-cdn.brainsonic.com/ressources/afile/120751-747d2-picture_original-pao.html 符號上的數字顯示PAO為12個月

依法僅有在失效日大於30個月必須在產品標籤上顯示效期。對其組成無影響安全變質風險的產品(香精、氣霧、噴霧等)或單次使用產品等特定類別產品則不需標示。

美妝產品的類別、組成、質地和包裝方式是否促使其與空氣接觸等因素都會影響PAO的長短。管裝美妝產品PAO會較罐裝者為長。睫毛膏和眼線的PAO通常為6個月,保濕乳霜、防曬產品和唇膏為12個月,指甲油、香精、眼影和蜜粉則有長達24個月的PAO。

我們建議避免使用超過失效日或超過開封後使用期限的美妝產品。

    • The duration of cosmetic product use is based on two complementary factors: the date of minimum durability of a cosmetic product or expiry date and the maximum duration of product use after opening or Period After Opening (PAO).

      Date of minimum durability (expiry date)
      The expiry date is the limit date until which the cosmetic product, stored under appropriate conditions, fulfills its function. Beyond that date, the use is no longer guaranteed. The date is preceded by the statement 'Best before ...' and followed by either the date itself or a statement of where the date can be found on the labeling. The date is written in the form of the month followed by the year (e.g.: 06/2014) or by the day followed by the month and year (e.g.: 01/06/2014). The European regulations do not require the date when the minimum durability is greater than 30 months. For that reason, the date is not indicated on a large number of our cosmetic product labels. When the minimum durability of our cosmetic products is less than 30 months, the date is shown on the product labeling in strict compliance with the regulations.

      Maximum duration of use after opening (Period After Opening - PAO)
      The period after opening is the maximum duration over which the cosmetic product may be used by the consumer after product opening. During that period, the cosmetic product remains compliant with the general safety requirements and does not undergo any deterioration under normal conditions of use. The PAO is represented by an explicit symbol showing an open pot of cream followed by the duration of use expressed in months.

      The symbol opposite indicates a PAO of 12 months

      Indication of the duration and hence display of the symbol on the product labeling is mandatory only when the expiry date is greater than 30 months. In contrast, the duration is not mandatory for certain categories whose compositions are such that there is no risk of deterioration liable to affect the safety of the product (fragrance, aerosol, spray, etc.) or for single-use products.

      Obviously, the PAO varies depending on cosmetic product category, composition, texture and type of packaging, which may or may not promote exposure to the air. Packaging a cosmetic product in a tube enables a longer PAO relative to a pot. The PAO is generally 6 months for mascaras and eyeliners, 12 months for moisturizing creams, sunscreen products and lipsticks and 24 months for nail varnish, fragrances, eye shadows and powders.

      We recommend not using a cosmetic product after its expiry date or when its period after opening has expired.

什麼是過敏原
過敏原是指在經某些受試者數次接觸後,可能引發其免疫系統過度反應的體外物質;所謂的免疫系統過度反應也就是一般所說的「過敏」。過敏原自然存在於我們的環境和飲食中,例如花粉或塵蟎可能會引發氣喘,花生、蝦和草莓也可能會引起相當嚴重的過敏反應;最後,特定藥物、染劑、香精等合成物質也有致敏可能。

數種過敏中最廣為人知的要屬立即過敏,主要是食物過敏,其症狀可能十分嚴重,另外還有延遲性接觸過敏,會引起嚴重程度可大可小的廣泛皮膚症狀(泛紅、發癢等)。

美妝產品有哪些風險
美妝產品偶爾會引起過敏反應,主要是接觸過敏,因如某些染髮劑、防腐劑和香精(參照資料表)等成分引起過敏;但引發過敏反應的頻率並不高,且大致上會侷限於產品使用區域,一旦停用產品就會完全復原。若產生過敏反應時應諮詢皮膚科醫師建議,並接受適當治療。

萊雅產品為什麼安全無虞
我們在產品中使用的一切成分都經歷嚴格的致敏性評估。在評估上市前美妝產品安全性的過程中,我們會確認產品中所含成分的使用不致引發消費者過敏;最後,我們還會針對產品進行適當的臨床試驗,確認不會造成過敏反應。

我們所開發的一切產品都依循此一嚴格的管控模式。

在特定產品的極少數案例中,可能會發現目前科學技術水準無法完全排除的過敏風險,在此情況下我們會經由產品標示向消費者告知相關風險,並建議消費者在使用產品前透過建議方法測試自身是否過敏。以染髮產品為例,我們會建議消費者在染髮前48小時實施系統性的皮膚過敏測試(參閱染髮劑);特別值得一提的是這項測試是由我們首創提議。

一般而言,我們建議知道自己具有過敏體質的消費者仔細閱讀所有美妝產品標籤上的成分清單,以免誤用含有問題成分的產品。

    • What is an allergen?
      Allergens are substances that are foreign to the body and that may induce, in certain subjects, after several contacts, an exaggerated response of the immune system known as an 'allergy'. Allergens are naturally present in our environment and diet. For example, pollen or the mites in dust may give rise to asthma; peanuts, shrimp and strawberries are known to induce allergic reactions that may potentially be very serious. Lastly, synthetic ingredients may have allergic potential. This is the case with certain medications, colorants, fragrances, etc.

      Several types of allergy are to be distinguished, among which the best known are immediate allergies, mainly food allergies, which may be very severe, and delayed contact allergies, which gives rise to cutaneous symptoms (redness, itching, etc.) that may be extensive to a greater or lesser degree.

      What are the risks with cosmetics?
      Cosmetic products may occasionally give rise to allergic reactions, mainly contact allergies. The reactions are due to the presence of ingredients such as certain hair colorants, preservatives and fragrances (cf. datasheets). The reactions are rare, generally confined to the product application site and totally reversible on discontinuation of product use. The reactions may necessitate dermatological consultation and an appropriate treatment.

      Why are L’Oréal products safe?
      The ingredients that we use in our products have all undergone rigorous evaluation of their allergenic potential. When we evaluate cosmetic product safety prior to marketing, we verify that the ingredients constituting the product are used under conditions in which they will not induce allergies in consumers. Lastly, we verify the absence of allergic reactions by conducting appropriate clinical trials on our products.

      This rigorous approach covers all the products that we develop.

      In rare cases and for very specific products, when an allergic risk is known and cannot be totally eradicated with the current state of scientific and technical knowledge, we inform the consumers of the risk incurred via the product labeling and we propose a method of detecting allergic potential before product use. This is the case for , for which we recommend systematically conducting a cutaneous allergy test 48 hours before coloration (see hair colorants). It is to be noted that we pioneered the recommendation of this test.

      In general, we recommend that consumers who know themselves to be allergic read the list of ingredients in the labeling of all cosmetic products attentively in order to avoid use of products that contain the ingredient(s) responsible.