A

抗真菌:可摧毀致真菌感染性真菌及酵母菌的物質。

 

C

臨床測試:產品上市前針對特定消費者族群中健康自願者所進行的測試,目標為驗證產品的無害性。

乳糜瀉:疾病名,特徵為對於如小麥(一般小麥及斯佩耳特小麥)、大麥及裸麥等各種穀類中麩質所含的各種蛋白質份化永久不耐受。

歐洲化粧品協會:歐洲化妝品、洗漱用品及香水產業同業公會,會員包含4000多家歐洲企業。https://www.cosmeticseurope.eu/about-cosmetics-europe.html

美妝產品資訊檔案:依據歐洲化妝品規範,負責將化粧品上市販售者(其製造商或進口商)應確保消費者安全,因此必須就每項其核准市售的美妝產品製作對應檔案以供主管當局查閱。

此檔案包含所有關於產品品質、配方、原物料及專家(例如毒物學家)所執行安全性評估的必要資訊。

化妝品監管(Cosmetovigilance)就化妝品對於人體健康潛在不良影響所執行的持續監控與分析。

 

E

EEU消費者安全科學委員會:委員會名,其係就非食品消費者產品(例如美妝產品及其成分、身體衛生產品)以及消費者服務(例如紋身、仿曬等)對健康與安全(化學、生物、醫療及其他身體風險)所造成的風險提出建言。http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_s/

 

H

荷爾蒙:由特殊細胞所產生並分泌於體內的生物物質,其作用為體內訊息傳遞且可影響器官運作方式。荷爾蒙為調節身體機能所必須。

荷爾蒙受體:可供特定荷爾蒙結合的蛋白質;所述特定荷爾蒙構成可對應觸發荷爾蒙程序的訊號(刺激)。

 

I

IFRA國際香氛協會 http://www.ifraorg.org/

無害性:不具有害或有毒效應。

電腦模擬預測:使用數學建模的測試。

本質危害:物質對人體或環境造成損傷的固有能力。不應與風險混淆,風險是指損傷發生的或然性,因此取決於與危害物接觸的多寡程度。

體外:(「試管內」的拉丁文),意指所有在身體外進行的生物實驗。反義詞為 in vivo(體內)。

體內:(「活體內」的拉丁文),意指所有在存活生物體內進行的生物實驗或反應。反義詞為 in vitro(體外)。

 

L

非沖洗性產品:用後不洗去而會與皮膚或毛髮持續接觸的美妝產品。

 

M

微生物汙染:存在過量對人類致病的微生物及細菌。

微生物保護:用於預防產品中細菌、真菌及其他微生物發展的程序。

 

O

雌激素:由卵巢所分泌而可控制排卵期的女性荷爾蒙(例如:雌二醇)。

氧化(氧化還原):與氧產生的化學反應,其中化學元素(稱為「還原劑」)將電子轉移至屬於「氧化劑」元素的氧原子上。

 

P

預測性評估:用於在美妝產品及其成分合成製作前確保其安全性和有效性的預測性評估,不涉及體內實驗。此項綜合方法利用資料資產,並經如重組人類皮膚、分子建模、統計及成像等工具技術強化。

預測性測試:參閱「預測性評估」。

蛋白質: 由胺基酸鏈所形成且由細胞所產生的大分子(「protein」(蛋白質)一字來自希臘文prôtos,意指「第一」)。

 

R

原物料:用於製造美妝產品所含成分的所有植物、動物、礦物或合成來源物質。

沖洗性產品:使用後應立即以水洗去的美妝產品。

風險:因本質危害而產生不良影響的或然性。風險與危害兩者不應混淆,例如:物質雖具危害性質,但可透過對於接觸物質的控制掌控其對於健康或環境的風險。

 

S

介面活性劑:降低兩種媒介間(例如兩種液體或液體與固體之間)的表面張力,並因此達成美妝產品乳化、發泡及/或濕潤效應的物質。

合成物質:利用化學反應製作的人造化合物。

 

T

毒物學:研究毒性物質的科學,特別著重汙染的來源和途徑,以及毒素對有機體的影響和偵測並預防這些影響的方法。

 

U

紫外線(UV):太陽輻射光譜的一部分,其特徵為小但強烈的波長,可能對表皮和真皮造成損害。

A

Antifungal:Substance that destroys fungi and yeasts that cause fungal infections.

C

Clinical tests:tests of a product before it is marketed carried out on healthy volunteers corresponding to a specific group of consumers, with the aim of verifying the innocuousness of the product.

Coeliac disease:Disease characterised by a permanent intolerance to various protein fractions of gluten contained in various types of cereal such as wheat (common wheat and spelt), barley and rye.

Cosmetics Europe:European trade association for the cosmetic, toiletry and perfumery industry representing the interests of more than 4000 companies at European level. https://www.cosmeticseurope.eu/about-cosmetics-europe.html

Cosmetics product information file:In the context of European cosmetics regulations, the person responsible for placing a cosmetic on the market (its manufacturer or importer) must ensure the consumer's safety. It must therefore compile a file for each cosmetic product that it places on the market, and which must be made available to the competent authorities.
The file contains all the necessary information relating to quality, formula, raw materials and the safety assessment of the product carried out by an expert (e.g.: toxicologist).

Cosmetovigilance:Ongoing monitoring and analysis of potential adverse effects of cosmetics on human health.

E

EEU Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety:The committee advises on the risks to health and safety (chemical, biological, mechanical and other physical risks) of non-food consumer products (e.g. cosmetic products and their ingredients, bodily hygiene products), and consumer services (e.g. tattoos, fake tanning, etc.) http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_s/

H

Hormone:Biological substance produced by special cells and secreted in the blood, which transmits messages within the body and affects how the organs work. Hormones are needed to regulate the functioning of the body.

Hormone receptor:is a protein to which a specific hormone can bind. The latter plays the role of a signal (stimulus) that triggers a hormonal process in response..

I

IFRA :International Fragrance Association http://www.ifraorg.org/

Innocuousness:Having no harmful or toxic effect.

In silico:Test using mathematical modelling

Intrinsic hazard:The inherent capacity of a substance to cause harm to a person or environment. This should not be confused with risk, which is the probability of this harm occurring, and which is therefore dependent on exposure to the hazard.

In vitro:(Latin for "in glass"). Refers to any biological experiment carried out outside the body. Opposite of in vivo.

In vivo:(Latin for "within the living"). Refers to any biological experiment or reaction occurring in the living organism. Opposite of in vitro.

L

Leave-on product:Cosmetic product that stays in extended contact with the skin or hair.

M

Microbial contamination:The presence in excessive quantities of microbes and bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans

Microbiological protection:The set of processes that prevent bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms from developing in a product.

O

Oestrogens:Female hormones secreted by the ovaries and which control the ovulation phase (e.g.: oestradiol).

Oxidization (redox):Chemical reaction with oxygen in which a chemical element (called the "reducing agent") transfers an electron to an oxygen atom that belongs to an element called the "oxidizing agent".

P

Predictive evaluation:A predictive evaluation is used to ensure the safety and effectiveness of cosmetic products and their ingredients, before they are produced synthetically, and without in vivo experimentation. It is a comprehensive approach that uses data assets and is enhanced by tools and techniques such as reconstructed human skin, modelling of molecules, statistics and imaging.

Predictive tests:See "Predictive evaluation"

Protein:Macromolecule comprised of a chain of amino acids and produced by the cells (the word "protein" comes from the Greek prôtos meaning "first").

R

Raw materials:all substances of plant, animal, mineral or synthetic origin used in the manufacture of ingredients comprising cosmetic products.

Rinse-off product:Cosmetic product intended to be removed immediately after application, using wate

Risk:The probability that an adverse effect will occur due to an intrinsic hazard. Risk and hazard should not be confused. For example, even if a substance has hazardous properties, the risk to human health or to the environment can be controlled if exposure to the substance is controlled.

S

Surfactants:Substances that reduce surface tension between two media (two liquids or a liquid and a solid for example) and therefore contribute to the emulsifying, foaming and/or wetting effect of cosmetic products.

Synthetic substance:A compound manufactured by man using a chemical reaction.

T

Toxicology:Science that studies toxic substances, in particular sources and means of contamination, as well as the effects of toxins on organisms and methods of detecting and preventing these effects.

U

Ultraviolet (UV):Part of the spectrum of solar radiation, characterised by small but very energetic wavelengths and therefore capable of causing damage to the epidermis and dermis.